UJI EFEKTIVITAS EKSTRAK METANOL BUAH PARE (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L.) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN ASPERGILLUS NIGER

https://doi.org/10.35907/bgjk.v14i1.237

Authors

  • Muhammad Ilham Gandi Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang
  • Ika Dyah Kurniati Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang
  • Mega Pandu Arfiyanti Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang

Keywords:

Momordica charantia, Methanolic Extract, Aspergillus niger, Microdilution

Abstract

Aspergillus niger is a species of fungus from the genus Aspergillus which is reported to be the main cause of otomycosis. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) contains several compounds, namely phenols, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins, and alkaloids that have potential as antifungals. This study aims to determine the content of phytochemical compounds present in the methanol extract of bitter melon and to test the effectiveness of the methanol extract of bitter melon on the growth of Aspergillus niger through the MIC test. This study used an in vitro laboratory experimental research design with a post-test-only control group design method. The MIC test used the multilevel serial microdilution method which was observed visually. The extract concentrations used were 8000 µg/ml, 4000 µg/ml, 2000 µg/ml, 1000 µg/ml, 500 µg/ml, 250 µg/ml, 125 µg/ml, and 62.5 µg/ml. The fruit samples of this study was bitter gourd obtained from bitter gourd farmers in Bandungan District, Semarang Regency, and pure culture of Aspergillus niger FNCC 6018. Data analysis used descriptive analysis. The results of the phytochemical screening showed positive saponins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds, and the MIC value was not found. It was concluded that the methanol extract of bitter melon was not effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus niger.

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References

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Cavalieri, S. J., Harbeck, R. J., McCarter, Y. S., Ortez, J. H., & D, R. I. (2005). Manual of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (M. B. Coyle (ed.)). American Society for Microbiology.

Do, Q. D., Angkawijaya, A. E., Tran-Nguyen, P. L., Huynh, L. H., Soetaredjo, F. E., Ismadji, S., & Ju, Y. H. (2014). Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 22(3), 296–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2013.11.001

Edward, Y., & Irfandy, D. (2012). Otomycosis. Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas, 1(2), 101–106.

Ergina, Nuryanti, S., & Pursitasari, I. D. (2014). Uji kualitatif senyawa metabolit sekunder pada daun palado yang diekstrasi dengan pelarut air dan etanol. Akademika Kimia, 3(3), 165–172.

Fekkar, A., Lampros, A., Mayaux, J., Poignon, C., Demeret, S., Constantin, J. M., Marcelin, A. G., Monsel, A., Luyt, C. E., & Blaize, M. (2021). Occurrence of invasive pulmonary fungal infections in patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to the ICU. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 203(3), 307–317. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202009-3400OC

Goughenour, K. D., Balada-Llasat, J. M., & Rappleye, C. A. (2015). Quantitative microplate-based growth assay for determination of antifungal susceptibility of histoplasma capsulatum yeasts. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 53(10), 3286–3295. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00795-15

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Mahasuari, N. P. S., Paramita, N. L. P. V., & Yadnya Putra, A. . G. R. (2020). Effect of methanol concentration as a solvent on total phenolic and flavonoid content of beluntas leaf extract (Pulchea indica L.). Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Application, 2(2), 77. https://doi.org/10.24843/jpsa.2020.v02.i02.p05

Marliana, S. D., Suryanti, V., & Suyono. (2005). Skrining fitokimia dan analisis kromatografi lapis tipis komponen kimia buah labu siam (Sechium edule Jacq . Swartz .) dalam ekstrak etanol. Biofarmasi, 3(1), 26–31.

Petrikkou, E., Rodríguez-Tudela, J. L., Cuenca-Estrella, M., Gómez, A., Molleja, A., & Mellado, E. (2001). Inoculum standardization for antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi pathogenic for humans. In Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Vol. 39, Issue 4, pp. 1345–1347). https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.39.4.1345-1347.2001

Rex, J. H., Alexander, B. D., Andes, D., Arthington-Skaggs, B., Brown, S. D., & Chaturveli, V. (2010). Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi; Approved standard - Second Edition. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 28(16), 6.

Rivai, H., Sari, D. P., & Azizah, Z. (2019). Analisis kualitatif dan kuantitatif kandungan senyawa dari ekstrak heksan, aseton, etanol dan air dari buah pare (Momordica charantia L.). March, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.30013.00487

Rozaliyani A, Jusuf A, Priyanti ZS, Burhan E, Handayani D, Widowati H, et al. (2019). Infeksi jamur paru di Indonesia: Situasi saat ini dan tantangan di masa depan. Jurnal Respirologi Indonesia, 39, 210–213. https://jurnalrespirologi.org/index.php/jri/article/download/69/49

Saeed, F., Afzaal, M., Niaz, B., Arshad, M. U., Tufail, T., Hussain, M. B., & Javed, A. (2018). Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): A natural healthy vegetable. International Journal of Food Properties, 21(1), 1270–1290. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2018.1446023

Singh, R., Kumar, A., Giri, D. D., Bhuvaneshwari, K., & Pandey, K. D. (2012). Gas chromatogrphy-mass spectrometry analysis and phytochemical screening of methanolic fruit extract of momordica charantia. Journal of Recent Advances in Agriculture, 1(4), 122–127.

Snehlata, K., Sheel, R., & Kumar, B. (2018). Evaluation of phytochemicals in polar and non polar solvent extracts of leaves of Aegle marmelos (L.). IOSR Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry (IOSR-JBB), 4(5), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.9790/264X-0405013138

Sri Widyawati, P., Budianta, T. D. W., Kusuma, F. A., & Wijaya, E. L. (2014). Difference of solvent polarity to phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of Pluchea indicia less leaves extracts. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 6(4), 850–855.

Sumayyah, S., & Salsabila, N. (2017). Khasiat obat tradisional. Majalah Farmasetika, 2(5), 2003–2006.

Tokarzewski, S., Ziółkowska, G., & Nowakiewicz, A. (2012). Susceptibility testing of Aspergillus niger strains isolated from poultry to antifungal drugs - A comparative study of the disk diffusion, broth microdilution (M 38-A) and etest methods. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 15(1), 125–133. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10181-011-0123-7

Truong, D. H., Nguyen, D. H., Ta, N. T. A., Bui, A. V., Do, T. H., & Nguyen, H. C. (2019). Evaluation of the use of different solvents for phytochemical constituents, antioxidants, and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of severinia buxifolia. Journal of Food Quality, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8178294

Van Der Linden, J. W. M., Warris, A., & Verweij, P. E. (2011). Aspergillus species intrinsically resistant to antifungal agents. Medical Mycology, 49(SUPPL. 1), 82–89. https://doi.org/10.3109/13693786.2010.499916

Villarreal-La Torre, V. E., Guarniz, W. S., Silva-Correa, C., Cruzado-Razco, L., & Siche, R. (2020). Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Momordica Charantia: A review. Pharmacognosy Journal, 12(1), 213–222. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2020.12.32

Yeo, Y. L., Chia, Y. Y., Lee, C. H., Sheng Sow, H., & Sum Yap, W. (2014). Effectiveness of maceration periods with different extraction solvents on in-vitro antimicrobial activity from fruit of Momordica charantia L. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 4(10), 16–23. https://doi.org/10.7324/japs.2014.401004

Ali, K., Hamed, M. A., Hassan, H., Esmail, A., & Sheneef, A. (2018). Identification of fungal pathogens in otomycosis and their drug sensitivity: Our experience. International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology, 22, 1–2. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.1055%2Fs-0038-1626702

Ariel, D. G., Winarsih, S., Putri, F. F., Erwan, N. E., Putri, A. M., Cahyono, A. W., Mardhiyyah, K., Fitri, L. E., & Nugraha, R. Y. B. (2021). Optimation of combination of n-hexane solution and ethyle acetate on secondary metabolite compounds profile of Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, 31(3), 186. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.jkb.2021.031.03.11

Cavalieri, S. J., Harbeck, R. J., McCarter, Y. S., Ortez, J. H., & D, R. I. (2005). Manual of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (M. B. Coyle (ed.)). American Society for Microbiology.

Do, Q. D., Angkawijaya, A. E., Tran-Nguyen, P. L., Huynh, L. H., Soetaredjo, F. E., Ismadji, S., & Ju, Y. H. (2014). Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 22(3), 296–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2013.11.001

Edward, Y., & Irfandy, D. (2012). Otomycosis. Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas, 1(2), 101–106.

Ergina, Nuryanti, S., & Pursitasari, I. D. (2014). Uji kualitatif senyawa metabolit sekunder pada daun palado yang diekstrasi dengan pelarut air dan etanol. Akademika Kimia, 3(3), 165–172.

Fekkar, A., Lampros, A., Mayaux, J., Poignon, C., Demeret, S., Constantin, J. M., Marcelin, A. G., Monsel, A., Luyt, C. E., & Blaize, M. (2021). Occurrence of invasive pulmonary fungal infections in patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to the ICU. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 203(3), 307–317. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202009-3400OC

Goughenour, K. D., Balada-Llasat, J. M., & Rappleye, C. A. (2015). Quantitative microplate-based growth assay for determination of antifungal susceptibility of histoplasma capsulatum yeasts. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 53(10), 3286–3295. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00795-15

Hayes, G. E., & Novak-Frazer, L. (2016). Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis: Where are we? And where are we going? In Journal of Fungi (Vol. 2, Issue 2). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof2020018

Kweka, E. J., Nyindo, M., Mosha, F., & Silva, A. G. (2011). Insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits and seeds of Schinus terebinthifolia raddi against african malaria vectors. Parasites and Vectors, 4(1), 6–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-129

Lahmer, T., Kriescher, S., Herner, A., Rothe, K., Spinner, C. D., Schneider, J., Mayer, U., Neuenhahn, M., Hoffmann, D., Geisler, F., Heim, M., Schneider, G., Schmid, R. M., Huber, W., & Rasch, S. (2021). Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia: Results from the prospective AspCOVID-19 study. In PLoS ONE (Vol. 16, Issue 3 March). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238825

Li, J., Xie, S., Ahmed, S., Wang, F., Gu, Y., Zhang, C., Chai, X., Wu, Y., Cai, J., & Cheng, G. (2017). Antimicrobial activity and resistance: Influencing factors. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00364

Mahasuari, N. P. S., Paramita, N. L. P. V., & Yadnya Putra, A. . G. R. (2020). Effect of methanol concentration as a solvent on total phenolic and flavonoid content of beluntas leaf extract (Pulchea indica L.). Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Application, 2(2), 77. https://doi.org/10.24843/jpsa.2020.v02.i02.p05

Marliana, S. D., Suryanti, V., & Suyono. (2005). Skrining fitokimia dan analisis kromatografi lapis tipis komponen kimia buah labu siam (Sechium edule Jacq . Swartz .) dalam ekstrak etanol. Biofarmasi, 3(1), 26–31.

Petrikkou, E., Rodríguez-Tudela, J. L., Cuenca-Estrella, M., Gómez, A., Molleja, A., & Mellado, E. (2001). Inoculum standardization for antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi pathogenic for humans. In Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Vol. 39, Issue 4, pp. 1345–1347). https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.39.4.1345-1347.2001

Rex, J. H., Alexander, B. D., Andes, D., Arthington-Skaggs, B., Brown, S. D., & Chaturveli, V. (2010). Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi; Approved standard - Second Edition. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 28(16), 6.

Rivai, H., Sari, D. P., & Azizah, Z. (2019). Analisis kualitatif dan kuantitatif kandungan senyawa dari ekstrak heksan, aseton, etanol dan air dari buah pare (Momordica charantia L.). March, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.30013.00487

Rozaliyani A, Jusuf A, Priyanti ZS, Burhan E, Handayani D, Widowati H, et al. (2019). Infeksi jamur paru di Indonesia: Situasi saat ini dan tantangan di masa depan. Jurnal Respirologi Indonesia, 39, 210–213. https://jurnalrespirologi.org/index.php/jri/article/download/69/49

Saeed, F., Afzaal, M., Niaz, B., Arshad, M. U., Tufail, T., Hussain, M. B., & Javed, A. (2018). Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): A natural healthy vegetable. International Journal of Food Properties, 21(1), 1270–1290. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2018.1446023

Singh, R., Kumar, A., Giri, D. D., Bhuvaneshwari, K., & Pandey, K. D. (2012). Gas chromatogrphy-mass spectrometry analysis and phytochemical screening of methanolic fruit extract of momordica charantia. Journal of Recent Advances in Agriculture, 1(4), 122–127.

Snehlata, K., Sheel, R., & Kumar, B. (2018). Evaluation of phytochemicals in polar and non polar solvent extracts of leaves of Aegle marmelos (L.). IOSR Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry (IOSR-JBB), 4(5), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.9790/264X-0405013138

Sri Widyawati, P., Budianta, T. D. W., Kusuma, F. A., & Wijaya, E. L. (2014). Difference of solvent polarity to phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of Pluchea indicia less leaves extracts. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 6(4), 850–855.

Sumayyah, S., & Salsabila, N. (2017). Khasiat obat tradisional. Majalah Farmasetika, 2(5), 2003–2006.

Tokarzewski, S., Ziółkowska, G., & Nowakiewicz, A. (2012). Susceptibility testing of Aspergillus niger strains isolated from poultry to antifungal drugs - A comparative study of the disk diffusion, broth microdilution (M 38-A) and etest methods. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 15(1), 125–133. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10181-011-0123-7

Truong, D. H., Nguyen, D. H., Ta, N. T. A., Bui, A. V., Do, T. H., & Nguyen, H. C. (2019). Evaluation of the use of different solvents for phytochemical constituents, antioxidants, and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of severinia buxifolia. Journal of Food Quality, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8178294

Van Der Linden, J. W. M., Warris, A., & Verweij, P. E. (2011). Aspergillus species intrinsically resistant to antifungal agents. Medical Mycology, 49(SUPPL. 1), 82–89. https://doi.org/10.3109/13693786.2010.499916

Villarreal-La Torre, V. E., Guarniz, W. S., Silva-Correa, C., Cruzado-Razco, L., & Siche, R. (2020). Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Momordica Charantia: A review. Pharmacognosy Journal, 12(1), 213–222. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2020.12.32

Yeo, Y. L., Chia, Y. Y., Lee, C. H., Sheng Sow, H., & Sum Yap, W. (2014). Effectiveness of maceration periods with different extraction solvents on in-vitro antimicrobial activity from fruit of Momordica charantia L. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 4(10), 16–23. https://doi.org/10.7324/japs.2014.401004

Published

2022-09-25

How to Cite

1.
Ilham MIG, Ika IDK, Mega MPA. UJI EFEKTIVITAS EKSTRAK METANOL BUAH PARE (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L.) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN ASPERGILLUS NIGER. BIGES JUKES [Internet]. 2022 Sep. 25 [cited 2022 Nov. 28];14(1):35-44. Available from: https://ejurnal.biges.ac.id/index.php/kesehatan/article/view/237